Science Behind the Book

200 Scientific Studies – Author’s Note About Scientific Sources

In writing “100 Simple Things You Can Do To Prevent Alzheimer’s and Age-Related Memory Loss,” I did extensive online searches of the medical literature on Pub Med, the world’s largest compendium of scientific journal articles, operated by the National Institutes of Health. I also searched the websites of  individual medical journals, academic research centers, government agencies, medical professional associations, major newspapers, magazines and specialized blogs  on the brain, neurology, geriatrics and Alzheimer’s. I attended online Webinars and video conferences on the latest scientific investigations into the initiation, progression, diagnosis, and  epidemiology of Alzheimer’s and on promising interventions to delay, stop or even reverse its  pathology and symptoms.

 I interviewed numerous leading Alzheimer’s researchers about their findings by phone and email.  I also consulted many books on Alzheimer’s and related topics.  

The number of studies I have read and relied on for a basic understanding and advice over the ten years or so I have been collecting information on the possibilities of preventing Alzheimer’s are in the thousands. They have provided much background and perspective on Alzheimer’s research.   It is impossible to list all of them.     

However,  here are more than 200 key scientific references that support the information in  “100 Simple Things You Can Do To Prevent Alzheimer’s…” Using these references, anyone can look up the abstracts and the articles by going to www.pubmed.gov. and putting in the name of the researcher,  subject matter or article title. All abstracts, summarizing the conclusions, are free, as are some full articles. Other full articles require a fee for downloading.

Some Key Scientific Sources for “100 Simple Things You Can Do to Prevent Alzheimer’s…”      

General:

How heritable is Alzheimer’s disease late in life? Findings from Swedish twins, Pedersen NL, Ann Neurol. 2004 Feb:55(2)156-8

Oligomers,  Abeta,    Gandy, S.  Annals of Neurology, 2010.

8th Annual symposium on “Early Alzheimer’s Disease: (formerly Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)  March 12-13, 2010, Miami Beach, Florida. Posted on www.alzforum.org   

A computer model of dementia prevalence in Australia: forseeing outcomes of delaying dementia onset, slowing disease progression and eradicating dementia types, Vickland . Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2010 ; 29:123-30

Bold New Look—Ab linked to default network dysfunction, www.alzforum.org. News, August 4, 2009

Books:

     The Alzheimer’s Project, Momentum in Science, John Hoffman and Susan Froemke, based on the HBO Documentary, 2009.

     The Alzheimer’s Action Plan, P. Murali Doraiswamy, M.D., Lisa P. Gwyther, M.S.W. with Tina Adler, 2008

     The Myth of Alzheimer’s, PeterJ. Whitehouse, M.D. with Daniel George, M.Sc, 2008

     The Memory Bible, Gary Small, M.D., 2002

     iBrain, Gary Small, M.D. and Gigi Vorgan, 2008

     The Anti-Alzheimer’s Prescription, Vincent Fortanasce, M.D. 2008

     Spark, John J. Ratey, M.D., 2008

     The No Sweat Exercise Plan, Harvey B. Simon, M.D., 2006

      Keep Your Brain Young, Guy McKhann, M.D. and Marilyn Albert, Ph.D., 2002

     Your Miracle Brain, Jean Carper, 2000     

 

Alcohol and wine

Moderate alcohol consumption may lower dementia risk in cognitively normal elderly, Sink, Kaycee M,  Alzheimer’s Association 2009 International Conference on Alzheimer’s Disease,  Abstract 09-A-1235-Alz

Alcohol -related dementia: a 21st century silent epidemic? Gupta, S and Warner, J,  The British Journal of Psychiatry 2008; 193:351-353

Binge drinking in midlife and dementia risk, Jarvenpaa, Tarja; Kaprio, Jaakko;  Epidemiology, Nov 2005:16(6):766-771

Alcoholic beverage and incidence of dementia: 34 follow-up of the prospective population study of women in Goteborg, K. Mehlig. American J of Epidemiology 2008; 167:684-691

Heterogeneity in red wine polyphenolic contents differentially influrnece Alzheimer’s disease-type neuropathology and cognitive deterioration, Ho, L, J Alzheimers Dis. 2009 Jan; 16(1):59-72

Moderate wine consumption is associated with better cognitive test results: a 7-year follow up of 5033 subjects in the Tromso Study. Arntzen KA. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 2010L190):23-9

Anesthesia

Anesthesia and the old brain, Eckenhoff, RG, Anesth Analg 2010;110:421-6

Inhaling Alzheimer’s? Hazy picture links anesthesia, AD.  www.alzforum, org July 31, 2009

The inhalation anesthetic isoflurane induces a vicious cycle of apoptosis and amyloid beta-protein accumulation. Xie Z, Tanzi RE. J Neurosci 2007;27:1247-54

BDNF

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is associated with age-related decline in hippocampal volume,    Erickson, K,  Kramer, A, J of Neuroscience, April 14, 2010

Blood Pressure

Does use of antihypertensive drugs affect the incidence or progression of dementia? A systematic review.  Shah, Kairav, Kunik, Mark E. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2009; 7:250-261

Angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitors and cognitive decline in older adults with hypertension: results from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Sink KM. Arch Intern Med 2009 Jul 13; 169(13): 1195-202

Hypertension and dementia. Nagal, Michiaki  Am J Hypeertens 2009

Blood pressure and brain injury in older adults: findings from a community-based autopsy study. Wang LY, Larson, EB. J Am Geriatr Soc 2009 Sept 28 (e pub ahead of print)

Midlife pulse pressure and incidence of dementia: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Launer LJ. Stroke 2006 Jan;37(1):33-7

Chocolate

Cerebral blood flow response to flavanol-rich cocoa in healthy elderly humans, Hollenberg, NK, Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2008 : 4(2): 433-440

Flavonoids and brain health: multiple effects underpinned by common mechanisms. Spencer, Jeremy PE. Genes Nutr 2009 4:243-250

Procyanidin and catechin contents and antioxidant capacity of cocoa and chocolate products. Gu, L, Prior RL. J Agric Food Chem 2006, 54:4057-4061

Intake of flavonoid-rich wine, tea, and chocolate by elderly men and women is associated with better cognitive test performance. Nurk, E. J.  Nutr 2009 Jan ;139 (1):120-7

How dark  chocolate guards against stroke injury.  Dore, Sylvain, J Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 2010

Cholesterol:

Midlife serum cholesterol and increased  risk of Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia three decades later. Whitmer RA. Dement Geriatric Cogn Disord 2009; 28(1): 75-80.

“Serum lipid levels and cognitive change in late life,” Reynolds, CA, J Am Geriatr Soc 58:501-509, 2010

“Twenty six-Year Change in Total Cholesterol Levels and Incident Dementia, Stewart, R, Arch Neurol 64:103-107, 2007

Choline

Is there a new component of the Mediterranean diet that reduces inflammation?  Zeisel, Steven, AMJCN: 87 (2): 277-78, Feb. 2008

Age-related declines in exploratory behavior and markers of hippocampal plasticity are attenuated by prenatal choline supplementation in rats. Glenn, MJ. Brain Res 2008 Oct 27, 1237:110-23

Choline dietary requirements and role in brain development. Swanders, Lisa, Zeisel, Steven H. Nutr Today 2007; 42(4): 181-86

Cinnamon

Cinnamon: Potential role in the prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. Anderson RA. J Diabetes Sci Technol 2010 May 1:4(3):685-693

 Cinnamon extract inhibits tau aggregation associated with Alzheimer’s disease in vitro. Peterson DW,  J Alzheimers Dis 2009 Jul;17(3): 585-97

Coffee and Caffeine

Caffeine as a protective factor in dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Eskelinen, MH and Kivipelto. J of Alzheimer’s Disease 20 (2010) S167-S174

Chronic caffeine consumption prevents memory disturbance in different animal models of memory decline. Cunha, RA,  Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 20 (2010) S95-S116

Midlife coffee and tea drinking and the risk of late-life dementia: a population based CAIDE study. Eskelinen MH. J Alzheimers Dis 2009 Jan; 16(1): 85-91.

Association  between reduced risk of diabetes and regularly drinking coffee, decaf and tea. Huxley, R. Arch Intern Med 2009; 169(22):2053-63

Caffeine protects Alzheimer’s mice against cognitive impairment and reduces brain beta-amyloid production. Arendash GW. Neuroscience 2006 3; 142(4): 941-52

Cognitive Reserve

Cognitive reserve, Stern Yaakov, Neuropsychologia 47, 2009: 2015-2028

Brain reserve and dementia: a systematic review. Valenzuela MJ. Psychol Med 2006 Apr; 36(4): 441-54

Very early detection of Alzheimer neuropathology and the role of brain reserve in modifying its clinical expression . Mortimer, JA. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2005 December; 18(4): 218-223

Conscientiousness

Conscientiousness and the incidence of Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment, Wilson RS, Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007 oct 64(10): 1204-12

Curry and Curcumin

Curry consumption and cognitive function in the elderly. Tze-Pin Ng. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2006; 164:898-906

Curry Power.  Patrick  Barry, Science News. Sept 15, 2007: 172:167-8.

Neuroprotective effects of curcumin. Cole GM, Frautschy SA. Adv Exp Med Biol 2007;595:197-212.

DASH Diet

DASH diet adherence scores and cognitive decline and dementia among aging men and women: Cache County study of Memory Health and Aging , Wengreen, Heidi J, 2009 Alzheimer’s Association International Conference on Alzheimer’s Disease (ICAD), July 14. 09-A-652-ALZ.

Depression

Change in depressive symptoms during the prodromal phase of Alzheimer disease. Wilson RS, Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008; 65:439-445

Depressive symptoms and risk of dementia: the Framingham Heart Study . Saczynski JS. Neurology 2010 Jul 6; 75:35-41

Diabetes

Uncontrolled diabetes increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a population –based cohort study. Xu WL. Diabetologia 2009 Jun; 52(6): 1031-9

10-year follow-up of diabetes incidence and weight loss in the diabetes prevention program outcomes study, Crandall , J;  the Lancet, Oct. 29, 2009

Type 2 diabetes and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Whitmer RA. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2007 Sep 7 (5): 373-80

The role of metabolic disorders in Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia, Craft, Suzanne. Arch Neurol 2009; 66(3):300-305

Diet

Food combination and Alzheimer disease risk: a protective diet, Gu Y, Stern Y, Scarmeas N., Arch Neurol 2010 Apr 12. E pub

Associations of vegetable and fruit consumption with age-related cognitive change, Morris MC, Neurology 2006 Oct 24; 67(8):1370-6

The role of nutrition in Alzheimer’s disease: epidemiological evidence, Morris MC, Eur J Neurol 2009 Sep 16 Suppl 1:1-7

Fast food  a potential risk factor for Alzheimer’s. Akterin, Susanne.  Karolinska Institutet,  2008, Nov. 30. Published as a doctoral thesis, as reported in Science Daily, Nov. 30, 2008.

The role of nutrition in Alzheimer’s disease: epidemiological evidence. Morris MC. Eur J Neurol 2009 Sep; 16 Suppl 1:1-7

Grape juice, berries and walnuts affect brain aging and behavior. Joseph, JA. J Nutr 2009 Sep; 139(9): 1813S-7S

Dietary niacin and the risk of incident Alzheimer’s disease and of cognitive decline. Morris, M.C. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2004; 75:1093-99.

Nutritional intervention in brain aging: reducing the effecs of inflammation and oxidative stress. Joseph, JA. Subcell Biocem 2007; 42:299-318

Better cognitive performance following a low-glycaemic-index compared with a high –glycaemic-index carbohydrate meal in adults with type 2 diabetes. Jenkins, D.J.A. Diabetologia 2006; 49:855-862

Dietary Bad Fat

Dietary fats and the risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Morris MC. Arch neurol 2003 Feb;60(2):194-200

Dietary fat intake and 6-year cognitive change in an older biracial community population, Morris MC, Neurology 2004 May 11; 62(9): 1573-9

Dietary copper and high saturated and trans fat intakes associated with cognitive decline, Morris MC, Arch Neurol 2006 Aug;63 (8):1085-8

Dietary influences on cognitive function with aging: from high-fat diets to healthful eating. Greenwood CE. Ann NY Acad Sci, 2007 oct 1114:389-97

High fat diets, insulin resistance and declining cognitive function, Greenwood CE. Neurobiol Aging 2005 Dec; 26 Suppl 1:42-5

Fat intake at midlife and risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: a population-based study. Kivipelto M. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord.2006; 22(1): 99-107

Education

Below average self-assessed school performance and Alzheimer’s disease in the aging, demographics and memory study, Mehta KM, Alzheimers Dement 2009 Sep:5(5):380-7

Educational aattainment and cognitive decline in old age, Wilson, RS. Neurology, 2009; 72;460-465

Alzheimer disease and cognitive reserve, Roe, CM, M orris, J.C., Arch  Neurol. Nov 2008;65(11): 1467-1471

Accounting for the relationship between low education and dementia: a twin study, Gatz, Margaret, Physiol Behav, 2007 September 10; 92(1-2): 232-237.

Exercise and Physical Activity

Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: a meta-analytic study, Kramer, AF. Psychological Science, 14 (2): March, 2003

Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans. Colcombe, SJ, Kramer AF, J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2006 Nov; 61:1166-1170.

 Physical activity, including walking, and cognitive function in older women, Weuve, J. JAMA , September 22/29, 2004; 292(12)

Association of muscle strength with the risk of Alzheimer disease and the rate of cognitive decline in community dwelling older persons, Boyle, Patricia A., arch Neurol 2009; 66(11): 1339-1344

Total daily activity is associated with cognition in older persons, Buchman AS, Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, 2008 Aug;16(8): 697-701

Exercise: a behavioral intervention to enhance brain health and plasticity. Cotman, CW,Trends Neurosci, 2002;25:295-301.

Running enhances neurogenesis, learning , and long term potentiation in mice. Van Praag H, Gage FH, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999-96:12427-31

Physical exercise at midlife and risk of dementia three decades later: a population –based study of Swedish twins. Andel, R. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2008 Jan; 63(1): 62-6

The impact of  resistance exercise on the cognitive function of the elderly, Cassilhas, Ricardo C, Med Sci Sports Exerc : 2007, 39(8)  1401-07

Aerobic fitness is associated with hippocampal volume in elderly humans, Erickson KI, Hippocampus 2009 Oct 19(10):1030-9

Physical fraility is associated with incident mild cognitive impairment in community-based older persons. Boyle PA, J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010 Feb:58(2):248-55

Early Signs

Olfactory impairment in presymptomatic Alzheimer’s disease, Wilson RS, Ann NY Acad Sci 2009 Jul: 1170:730-5

Olfactory identification and incidence of mild cognitive impairment in older age, Wilson RS, Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2007 Jul; 64(7): 802-8

Eyes

Untreated poor vision: a contributing factor to late-life dementia, Rogers MA. Am J Epidemiol 2010 Feb 11

Targeting amyloid-beta in glaucoma treatment. Cordeiro MF, Proceedings of NAS 2007 Aug 7.

Cytosolic beta-amyloid deposition and supranuclear cataracts in lenses from people with Alzheimer’s disease. Goldstein LE. Lancet 2003 Apr 12; 361 (9365): 1255-65

Fish and omega-3 fatty acids

Fish consumption and cognitive decline with age in a large community study, Morris MC,  Arch Neurol 2005 Dec; 62(12):1849-53

Plasma Phosphatidylcholine docosahexaenoic acid content and risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease. The Framingham Heart Study. Schaefer, Ernst J. Arch Neurol 2006;63:1545-1550

Beneficial effects of docosahexaenoic acid on cognition in age-related cognitive decline. Yurko-Mauro K, alzheimers Dement 2010 Apr 29(e pub ahead of print)

Prevention of Alzheimer’s disease: Omega-3fatty acid and phenolic antioxidant interventions. Cole GM. Neurobiol Aging 2005 Dec. 26 Suppl 1:133-36

Omega-3 fatty acids and dementia. Cole GM, Frautschy SA. Prostaglandins leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2009 Aug-Sep; 81(2-3):213-21

Cognitive performance among the elderly and dietary fish intake: the Hordaland Health Study. Nurk, E. Am j Clin Nutr 2007 Nov;86(5): 1470 -8

Dietary fish and meat inake and dementia in Latin Amrica, China, and India: a 10/66 dementia research group population-based study. Alanese, Emiliano. Am J Clin Nutr 2009:90:392-400.

Fish consumption and cognitive decline with age in a large community study. Morris MC. Arch Neurol 2005 Dec; 62(12): 1849-53

Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Morris MC. Arch Neurol 2003 Jul; 60(7):940-6

Genetics

APOE predicts amyloid-beta but not tau Alzheimer pathology in cognitively normal aging. Morris, JC, Ann  Neurol 2010 Jan; 67(1): 122-31

Apolipoprotein E4 is associated with disease-specific effects on brain atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia. Agosta , F, PNAS, Feb 10, 2008, 9: 106 (6): 2018-2022

Head Injury

Live discussion: sports concussions, dementia, and ApoE genotyping: What can scientists tell the public? What’s up for research?  Alzforum.org, June 26, 2008

Brief: NFL survey on dementia splashes across front pages. Alzforum:News, Sept 30, 2009

Fall-related brain injuries and the risk of dementia in elderly people: a population based study. Luukinen H. Eur J Neurol 2005 Feb; 12(2):86-92

Genetic susceptibility and head injury s risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease among community-dwelling elderly persons and their first-degree relatives. Mayeux, Richard. Annals of Neurology. Oct, 2004; 33(5): 494-501

Heart

Alzheimer’s disease is incurable but preventable. De la Torre, Jack C,  Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease,  July, 2010.

Carotid artery ultrasound and echocardiography testing to lower the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease. de la Torre, Jack C , J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2009 Jul-Au; 18(4): 319-28.

How do heart disease and stroke become risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease? de la Torre, JC. Neurol Res 2006 Sep:28(6): 637-44

Homocysteine

A prospective study on the development of Alzheimer’s disease with regard to thyroid-stimulating hormone and homocysteine.  Annerbo S. Demnt Geriatr Cogn Disord 2009; 28(3):275-80

Homocysteine levels and lacunar brain infarcts in elderly women: the prospective population study of women in Gothenburg. Zylbersteine DE. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2008 Jun;56(6): 1087-91

Midlife homocysteine and lae-life dementia in women. A prospective population study. Zylberstein DE. Neurobiol Aging 2009 Mar 31. (e pub ahead of print)

Homocysteine, B vitamins, and the incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment: results from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging. Haan MN. Am j Clin Nutr 2007 Feb; 85(2): 511-7

The many facets of hyperhomocysteinemia: studies from the Framingham Cohiorts. Selhub, Jacob.  J of Nutrition, 136;1726S-1730S, 2006

Homocysteine as a predictor of cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease. Oulhaj A. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009 May 29. (e pub ahead of print).   

Infections and Antibiotics

Borrelia burgdorferi persists in the brain in chronic lyme neuroborreliosis and may be associated with Alzheimer disease. Miklossy J, J Alzheimers Dis 2004 Dec; 6(6):639-49

Past exposure to to vaccines and subsequent risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Verreault R., CMAJ 2001 Nov 27;165(11): 1495-8

Neuroprotecive effects of tetracyclines: molecular targets, animal models and human disese. Orsucci D. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2009 jun;8(3): 222-31

Identification and localization of Chlamydia pneumonia in the Alzheimer’s brain. Balin BJ, Med Microbiol Immunol 1998 Jun; 187(1): 23-43

Herpes simplex virus type 1 in Alzheimer’s disease: the enemy within. Itzhaki RF. J Alzheimers Dis 2008 May; 13(4): 393-405

Inflammation

Association of C-reactive protein with mild cognitive impairment. Petersen RC. Alzheimers Dement 2009 S”ep;5(5):398-405

Juices

Apple juice concentrate maintains acetylcholine levels following dietary compromise. Shea, TB, J Alzheimers Dis, 2006 Aug; 9(3): 287-91

Dietary supplementation with apple juice decreases endogenous amyloid-beta levels in murine brain. Shea, TB, J Alzheimers Dis 2009 Jan; 16(1):167-71

Fruit and vegetable juices and Alzheimer’s disease: the Kame Project. Larson EB. Am J Med 2006 Sep; 119(9): 751-9

Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults. Krikorian R., J Agric Food Chem. Jan 4, 2010 online.

Concord grape juice supplementation improves memory function in older adults. Joseph, J.A. and Krikorian, R. British J of Nutrition. Jan 8, 2010.

Leptin

Association of plasma leptin levels with incident Alzheimer disease and MRI measures of brain aging.  Lieb, Wolfgang. JAMA, 2009; 302(23):2565-2572

Leptin: A novel therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer’s disease.  Sraboni Sarkar. JAlzheimer’s Dis 16(2009) 731-740

Linguistics

The Nun study: clinically silent AD, neuronal hypertrophy, and linguistic skills in early life. Troncoso JC, Neurology 2009 Sep 1; 73(9): 665-73

Bilingualism as a protection against the onset of symptoms of dementia. Blaslystok, Ellen. Neuropsychologia 2007 Jan 28; 45(2): 459-64

Multilingualism (but not always bilingualism) delays the onset of Alzheimer disease: evidence from a bilingual community. Bergman H. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2010 Apr-Jun 24(2): 118-25

Loneliness

Loneliness and risk of Alzheimer disease, Wilson  RS, Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2007 Feb: 64(2): 234-40

Addressing loneliness in later life, Pettigrew S, Aging & Mental health, May 2008,12(3):302-309

Marijuana

Cannabinoid receptor stimulation is anti-inflammatory and improves memory in old rats. Went, GL. Neurobiol Aging 2008 Dec; 29 (12): 1894-901

A molecular link between the active component of marijuana and Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology. Janda, Kim D.  Molecular Pharmaceutics, Oct 2, 2006..   

Marriage

Association between mid-life marital status and cognitive function function in later life: population based cohort study. Kivipelto, Mila. BMJ, July 2 2009;3339: 1690

Mediterraean Diet

Physical activity, diet and risk of Alzheimer disease. Scarmeas N. JAMA, 2009 Aug 12; 302(6): 627-37

Adherence to a Mediterranean diet, cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Feart C. JAMA. 2009 Aug 12;302(6):638-48

Mediterranean diet and late-life cognitive impairment. Knopman, D.S. JAMA 2009 Aug 12; 302(6): 686-7

Mediterranean diet and mild cognitive impairment. Scarmeas, Nikolaos. Arch Neurol 2009; 66(2): 216-225

Mediterranean diet, Alzheimer disease and vascular mediation. Scarmeas, N, Stern, Y. Arch Neurol , Oct. 2006;63

Mental Activity

Mental, physical and social components in leisure activities equally contribute to decrease dementia risk,  Karp, Anita, Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2006:21-65-73

Cognitive activity and incident AD in a population-based sample of older persons, Wilson RS, Neurology. 2002 Dec 24; 59(12): 1910-4

Participation in cognitively stimulating activities and risk of incident Alzheimer disease, JAMA 2002 Feb 13; 287(6): 742-8

Participation in novelty-seeking leisure activities and Alzheimer’s disease. Friedland RP, J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2005 Sep; 1893): 134-41

The relationship between television viewing in midlife and the development of alzheimer’s disease in a case-control study. Friedland RP, Brain Cogn 2005 Jul; 58(2): 157-65

Patients with Alzheimer’s disease have reduced activities in midlife compared with healthy control-group members. Friedland, RP. Proc Natl Acad Sci, USA. 2001 Mar 13; 98(6):3440-45

Relation of cognitive activity to risk of developing Alzheimer disease. Wilson, RS. Neurology, 2007; 69(20): 1911-203

Influence of leisure activity on the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease. Scarmeas, N, Stern Y. Neurol 2001 Dec; 57:2236-42

Mental, physical and social components in leisure activities equally contribute to decrease dementia risk. Fratiglioni L,  Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord , 2006; 21(2):65-73

Can training in a real-time strategy video game attenuate cognitive decline in older adults? Kramer Arthur F.  Psychology and Aging, 2008; 23(4):765-777

Your brain on Google: patterns of cerebral activation during internet searching. Small, Gary, American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 2009 Feb; 17(2):116-26

Multivitamins

Multivitamin use and telomere length in women. Chen, H. Am  J Clin Nutr 2009; 89:1857-63

Complex antioxidant blend improves memory in community-dwelling seniors, Summers, WK, JAD, 19 (2010)429-439

Shorter telomeres may mark early risk of dementia: preliminary analysis of 62 participants from the nurses’ health study.  Grodstein F. PLoS One 2008 Feb 13; 3(2): e 1590

NSAIDS

NSAID exposure and risk of Alzheimer disease: is timing everything? Bennett DA, Whitmer RA. Neurology, 2009 Jun 2; 72(22): 1884-5

Risk of dementia and Ad with prior exposure to NSAIDs in an elderly community-based cohort. Larson EB. Neurology 2009 Jun 2 ; 72(22): 1884-5

Naproxen and celecoxib do not prevent AD n early results from a randomized controlled trial. ADAPT Research Group. Neurology 2007;68:1800-1808

No advantatge of A 42-lowering NSAIDs for prevention of Alzheimer dementia in six pooled cohort studies. Szekely CA. Neurology 2008 May 28 (e pub ahead of print)

Protective effects of NSAIDs on the development of Alzheimer Disease. Vlad SC. Neurology. 2008 May 6; 70:1672-1677.

Overweight and Obesity

Body mass index in midlife and risk of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Whitmer RA. Curr Alzheimer Res 2007 Apr 4(2):103-09

Central obesity and increased risk of dementia more than three decades later. Whitmer RA. Neurology 2008 Sep 30; 71(14): 1057-64

Midlife and late-life obesity and the risk of dementia: cardiovascular health study. Fitzpatrick AL. Arch Neurol 2009 Mar; 66(3): 336-42

Obesity is linked with lower brain volume in 700 AD and MCI patients. Thompson, Paul M. Neurobiology of Aging 31, 2010:1326-1339

Overweight in midlife is related to lower cognitive function 30 years later: a prospective study with longitudinal assessments. Johansson B. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2010 Jul 3;29(6): 543-552

Intentional weight-loss lowers mortality rate for seniors, research shows,  Kritchevsky,  S. J of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 2010.

Psychological Distress

Chronic distress and incidence of mild cognitive impairment, Wilson RS, Neurology 2007 Jun 12; 68(24):2085-92

Chronic distress, age-related neuropathology, and late-life dementia. Wilson RS, Psychosom Med 2007 Jan;69(1):47-53

Proneness to psychological distress is associated with risk of Alzheimer’s disease, Wilson RS.Neurology 2003 Dec 9:61(11): 1479-85

Purpose in Life

Effect of a purpose in life on risk of incident Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older persons,  Boyle PA, Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2010 Mar;67(3):304-10

Purpose in life is associated with mortality among community-dwelling older perwsons, Boyle PA, Psychosom Med 2009 Jun; 71(5): 574-9

Sleep  

Amyloid B dynamics are regulated by orexin and the sleep-wake cycle, Kang, JE, Holtzman, D M., Science 2009 Nov 13; 326 (5955)1005-7

A single night of partial sleep deprivation induces insulin resistance in multiple metabolic pathways in healthy subjects,  Donga, E , JCEM, June 2010

Brain structural changes in obstructive sleep apnea. Macey, Paul M, Sleep 2008 July 1;31(7):967-977

Cognitive effects of treating obstructive sleep apnea in Alzheimer’s disease: a reandomized controlled study. Ancoli-Israel, S. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2008 Nov.56(11):2076-81

Smoking:

Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease: an analysis controlling for tobacco industry affiliation, Cataldo, Janine K,  JAD, 2010: 1240  DOI. 1

The effect of alcohol and tobacco consumption, and apolipoprotein E genetype, on the age of onset in Alzheimer’s disease, Harwood DG. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, 2009 Sep 14

The relation of cigarette smoking to incident Alzheimer’s disease in a biracial urban community population. Aggarwal NT.  Neuroepidemiology 2006; 26(3):140-6 Epub 2006 Feb 21

Exposure to second-hand smoke and cognitive impairment I non-smokers. Llwewellyn DJ, BMJ 2009;338 b462

Mid-life smoking and late-life dementia: the Honolulu-Asia Aging study. Tyas SL.Neurobiol Aging 2003 Jul-Aug;24(4): 589-96

Social Activity

The effect of social networks on the relation  between Alzheimer’s disease pathology and level of cognitive function in old people: a longitudinal cohort study, Bennett DA, Lancet Neurol 2006 May;5(5)::406-12

Social network, cognitive function, and dementia incidence among elderly wome. Crooks VC, Am J Public Health; 2008 Jul; 98(7): 12221-7

An active and socially integrated lifestyle in late life might protect against dementia. Fratiglioni L., Lancet Neurol 2004; 3(6):343-53

Statins:

Can statins prevent or help treat Alzheimer’s disease?, McGuinness, Bernadette, J Alzheimer’s Dis,  2010: online Feb 24.

Statins and cognitive functioning in the elderly: a population-based study,  Julian Benito-Leon, J Alzheimer’s Dis , April 22, 2010, online  

Serum total cholesterol, statins and cognition in non-demented elderly Solomon, A., Neurobiology of Aging 30, 2009: 1006-09 

Sugar

Intake of sucrose-sweetened water induces insulin resistance and exacerbates memory deficits and amyloidosis in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease. Ling Li. J of  Biological Chemistry. Dec. 14, 2007; 282(50):36275-82

Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans. Stanhope, Kimber L, Schwarz, Jean Marc. J Clin Invest 119:1322-34. May, 2009

Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: epidemiologic evidence, Hu, Frank B.  Physiology and Behavior , 2010.   

Tea

Neuroprotective molecular mechanisms of –epigallocatechin-3-gallate: a reflective outcome of its antioxidant, iron chelating and neuritogenic properties. Youdim, BH.  Genes Nutr Sept. 10, 2009

Green tea catechins as brain-permeable, nontoxic iron chelators to “iron out iron”  from the brain. Mandel S. J Neural Transm Suppl 2006; (71):249-57

Tea consumption and cognitive impairment and decline in older Chinese adults. Ng T-P. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008. 88:224-231

Green and black tea consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis. Arab L. Stroke 2009 May;40(5):1786-92

Thyroid  

Thyroid function and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease: the Framingham Study. Zaldy S Tan. Arch Intern Med 2008 July 28;168(14): 1514-1520

Toxic Chemicals

Environmental Threats to Health Aging, 2008.  chapter 7, Environmental Factors in the Development of dementia. Pages 97-144.  A report from the Greater Boston Physicians for Social Responsibility and Science and Environmental Health Network.  Available online.

Impact  of cognitive reserve on the relationship of lead exposure and neurobehavioral performance,  Bleecker ML. Neurology, 2007 Jul 31; 69 (5): 470-6

Epigenetic differences in cortical neurons from a pair of monozygotic twins discordant for Alzheimer’s disease. Coleman, PD., Aug 2009 PLoS One 4(8).

Risks of copper and iron toxicity during aging in humans. Brewer , George J. Chem Res toxicol 2010 Feb 15;23(2):319-26

Vinegar

Preliminary evidence that regular vinegar ingestion favorably influences hemoglobin A1c values in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Johnston CS. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2009 May; 84(2):e 15-17

Vinegar improves insulin sensitivity to a high carbohydrate meal in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. Johnston CS. Diabetes Care 2004 Jan;27(1): 281-2

Vinegar ingestion at bedtime moderates waking glucose concentrations in adults with well controlled type 2 diabetes. White AM. Diabetes Care 2007 Nov; 30(11):2814-5

Vitamins

Alpha lipoic acid as a novel treatment for Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias. Holmquist L. Pharmacol Ther 2007 Jan :113(1): 154-64

Optimal micronutrients delay age-associated diseases and mitochondrial decay. Ames, Bruce N. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 2009.

Feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress. Hagen, T.M. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2002, : 1870-75.

L. Carnitine treatment reduces severity of physical and mental fatigue and increases cognitive functions in centenarians: a randomized and controlled clinical trial. Malaguarnera, M. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 86:1738-44

The effect of acetyl-L-carnitine and R-alpha lipoic acid treatment in ApoE4 mouse as a model of human Alzheimer’s disease.  Shenk, JC. Ames, BN. J Neurol Sci 2009 Mar 31

Mitochondrial decay in the brains of old rats: ameliorating effect of alpha-lipoic acid and acety-L-carnitine. Long, J. Ames, BN. Neurochem Res 2009 Apr; 34(4):755-63 

Vitamin B12 and cognition in the elderly. Smith, David and Refsum, Helga. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89 (suppl0:707S-11S

Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly. Vogiatzoglou A.,  Smith, AD. Neurology 2008 Sep 9:71(11):826-32.

Deprivation of folate and B12 increases neurodegeneration beyond that accompanying deprivation of either vitamin alone.  Shea B J Alzheimers Dis 2009 Mar; 16(3): 533-40viation 

Greater intake of vitamins B6 and B12 spares gray matter in healthy elderly: a voxel-based morphometry study, Erickson KI, Brain Res, 2008, Mar 14;1199:20-6 6 2

Biochemical indicators of vitamin B12 and folate insufficiency and cognitive decline, Tangney CC, Neurology 2009 Jan 27; 72(4): 361-7

Vitamin D and Risk of Cognitive Decline in Elderly Persons , Llewellyn, D.J, Arch Intern Med 2010:170(13):1135-1141

Higher folate intake is related to lower risk of Alzheimer’s in the elderly. Mayeux, R. J Nutr Health Aging,  2008 Noember: 12(9):648-650

Randomized Trial: memory of adults 50-75 improved by daily dose of 800 mcg folate, Durga, Jane, Neurobio Aging, 2006 Feb; 27(2):334-43

Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation oncognitive function in olde aduls in the FACIT trial: a randomized, double blind, controlled trial. Durga, J. Lancet 2007 Jan 20; 369 (9557: 208-16.

Reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease with high folate intake: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.  Corrada, Maria, Alzheimer’s & Dementia, July 2005; 1(1): 11-18.

Nicotinamide restores cognition in Alzheimer’s disease transgenic mice via a mechanism involving sirtuin inhibition and selective reduction of Thr231 – phosphotau. LaFerla, Frank M.  J of Neuroscience, Nov. 5, 2008; 28(45):11500